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Triangular Trade: Annotated Bibliographies

Basic Bibliography format

Noodletools will format your bibliography for you (on the bibliography tab select the Print/Export option and send to Word-- Remember to type your name at the top!). Here are the basics to remember for formatting a bibliography:

-Double spaced

-Entries are in alphabetical order

-Hanging indent for all entries (the second line of the entry is indented 1/2 inch or 5 spaces)

-Can be titled either Bibliography or Works Cited (if sources are cited in-text)

-The title of the bibliography is centered

-Margins of 1" on top and bottom and on both sides of the text

-Do not number a bibliography

-Times New Roman font

-If you have done parenthetical or in-text citation those must match up with an entry on your bibliography

-Entries start with either an individual author's name (ex: John Smith) or the title of the article,webpage, book, etc. Do not start an entry with a corporate name

-For alphabetic purposes ignore the words A, An, The, etc when they start a source's title

Annotated Bibliographies

Annotated bibliographies follow the same rules as a basic bibliography but with the addition of a paragraph long annotation. The annotation is a justification of why you chose that particular source.If you keep in mind the TOECAP criteria (TRUSTWORTHY, OBJECTIVE, ENOUGH, CURRENCY, ACCURATE, PURPOSE)  for selecting quality sources you can also use some of those same factors for generating an annotation. Here are some suggestions for what you can include in your annotations:

•Typically 150 words in length

•Start with the book/source’s citation information

•The annotation informs the reader of the quality of the information found in this source and the accuracy of that information on your topic

•An annotation can include your opinion. It takes a critical look rather just a descriptive summary.

•Usually the annotations include comments on the background/qualifications of the author of the work

•Elaborate on the central theme of the work as a whole.

•Identify the intended audience.

•A statement comparing/contrasting various sources on the same bibliography is also acceptable.

•Any exceptional features of the source (index, appendices, glossary, maps, photos etc)

•It is acceptable to use phrases rather than complete sentences or a combination of both. However, it still must be readable!

You can use your TOECAP criteria as the basis for writing these annotations. However you do not HAVE to include all of the TOECAP details if they aren't relevant for this particular project. Turn those TOECAP criteria into a paragraph and you are done!


Behrendt, Steven D. "Seasonality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade: Rainfall, Crop Type, and Agricultural Calendars." Trans Atlantic Slave Trade Database. Emory University, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2015. < assessment/essays-seasonality-04.faces>.

Dr. Steven Behrendt is a senior lecturer at the University of Victoria in New Zealand and appears to have specialized in the history of the British slave trade. He has written several books on the topic and has been a fellow at Harvard University in their Institute for African and African American Research. He is widely cited in other works that I read that deal with the Atlantic slave trade and he is an expert in the field. Dr. Behrendt did not include his sources for this particular essay but it is extremely well written and I trust his authority to provide these details. The purpose of this website is to provide research information for those interested in the slave trade I found his data on crop cycles and the details involved in harvest and planting times to be of the most use for this project. This essay is also a great source for visual charts that show tobacco production by state. The Database as a whole is an amazing resource that covers even the most minute details of the slave trade. Highly recommended.

Shatzkin, Mike, ed. The Ballplayers: Baseball's Ultimate Biographical Reference. New       York: Arbor House/William Morrow, 1990.

Although Shatzkin's The Ballplayers is more comprehensive in biographical content than Porter's Biographical Dictionary of American Sports: Baseball, Porter provides somewhat lengthier entries, focusing on better known individuals. Both are excellent sources, particularly for information about individuals who lack book-length biographies. The source is also noted for its inclusion of primary source documents and lengthy essays detailing those ocuments. Shatzkin is a former employee of the MLB (Major League Baseball) and write with authority on today's current players. Both include citations for further research.

Waite, Linda J., Frances Kobrin Goldscheider, and Christina Witsberger. "Nonfamily       Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among      Young Adults."       American Sociological Review 51 (1986): 541- 554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

Sample Bibliography format

Colleen Williamson

US History Final (C)

Ms. Federman



Works Cited

"American History Decade 1940-1949." LSC Kingwood Library. Lone Star College, n.d. Web. 7 May 2012. &lt;>.

Records of the United States Senate. National Archives. "SEN 77A-H2 Record Group 46." Franklin D. Roosevelt Annual Message to Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2012.

Smith, John. Disability Earnings Income and Consumption. Stanford Center on Poverty. Stanford University, 4 Dec. 2006. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. &lt;>.