To avoid plagiarism, you must also indicate in the text of the paper exactly what you have taken from a source and where to locate that information in a source. When you use an original idea from one of your sources, In-text citations appear in parentheses, usually at the end of a sentence, and correspond directly with an entry in your Works Cited.
In-text citations, also called parenthetical references, do the following:
You will always need to cite your source when you use:
A direct quote from a source
EXAMPLE: Doctor Who "has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series" (Smith 43).
A paraphrase or summary of a source's ideas
EXAMPLE: Much of Britain's television continues to be impacted by Doctor Who to this day, as many of those who are employed by television stations cite Doctor Who as a major influence (Smith 43).
A specific figure or number, which will often be:
EXAMPLE: About 38% of the Doctor Who episodes made in the 1960s are not available in the BBC Archives (Smith 42).
EXAMPLE: By the 1990s, Doctor Who episodes had set the precedent that a Time Lord can regenerate, or come back to life in a new physical form, no more than 12 times, meaning that we could have 13 different actors (or actresses) play a single Doctor (Smith 42).
You have two choices as to how you credit an author in the body of your essay.
Choice 1: Introduce the author before his or her quotation, and include the page number(s) in parentheses at the end of the sentence. The period follows the parenthesis because the in-text citation is considered part of the sentence.
EXAMPLE: As Charlotte McDonald-Gibson, journalist and author, notes, “It was only when there was nothing else left--when there was no income, education, shelter, food, or safety--that people put themselves and their families in a boat and took that last gamble” (3).
Choice 2: Include the author’s name with the parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase.
EXAMPLE: While most people wanted to remain in a familiar culture, hopeful to be able to return home eventually, “it was only when there was nothing else left--when there was no income, education, shelter, food, or safety--that people put themselves and their families in a boat and took that last gamble” (McDonald-Gibson 3).
|Type of Citation||Example|
|One Author||(Smith 30).|
|Two Authors||(Smith and Jones 9).|
|More Than Two Authors||(Smith et al. 367).|
|No Author||("Refugees" 82).|
|Indirect Source||(qtd. in Smith 32).|